LAN: Local Area Network. A small group of computers connected, usually over a very small area - a single room or a building. Usually connected with copper cables.
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network. Network over a larger are, usually city-size, connecting computers and LANs. Sometimes connected with fiber optics as high speeds are required.
WAN: Wide Area Network. Network over large geographical areas, often across and beyond entire continents. Most known WAN is the internet. Various transmission media, like phone cables, fiber optics and satellite transmission. Connects many computers, LANs or WANs.
VLAN: Virtual Local Area Network. A type of network where computers behave like they were in the same LAN, but in reality they are far apart in different networks, from where they tunnel in into the virtual LAN. An example is Hamachi, often used by gamers to play multiplayer games that only support LAN parties, over the internet.
WLAN: Same as a LAN, just with radio wave connections instead of wires. In general slower than a LAN.
Computer need standards to be able to communicate with each other, just as we need clear defined grammatical rules to be able to talk with each other.
The computer communications networks we use today are based on the OSI reference model. Aim of the OSI model is to allow communications across many different technical plattforms and to allow easy development. To reach this, the model defines seven consecutive layers with individual roles. It is easy to switch between the protocols in the same layer, even if they have a central function like the Internet Protocol (IP).
Following is a summary of the functions of each layer, but the IB does not require students to understand the functioning of the layers.
Layer 7 - Application layer: Services, applications and network management. This layer provides functions for the applications running on a computer. Data input and output happens over this layer.
Layer 6 - Presentations layer: This layer is the system specific presentations of the data (i. e. ASCII). It enables the correct exchange of data between different systems. Also, data compression and encryption belong to this layer. In general, it ensures that data sent by the application layer can be read by the presentation layer of the receiving system. If necessary, it works as a translation layer between the different data formats used by the two systems.
Layer 5 - Session layer: This layer takes care of the communication between two systems. It provides services to repair broken down sessions and creates the sessions for an organized and synchronised data transfer.
Layer 4 - Transport layer: Functions of this layer include segmenting the data stream and avoiding congestion. It provides a standardised interface for the above layers so that they don't need to be concerned with the features of the communication networks.
Layer 3 - Network Layer: In packet oriented networks, this layer is responsible for the forwarding of data packets. Data forwarding happens over the entire network and includes the routing of packets between the network nodes. The most importand functions of this layer include the provision of addresses across the network, routing and the processes of actualising and creating routing tables and the fragmenting of data packets.
Layer 2 - Data Link layer: Task of this layer is to ensure a faultless transmission of data and to regulate access to the transmission medium, by breaking up the bit stream in frames and providing those with checksums to be able to detect a corrupted data packet.
Layer 1 - Physical layer: This is the lowest layer. It provides mechanic, electric and functional help to activate and deactivate physical connections, keep them active and transmit bits through them. These can be electric, optical, electromagnetic waves or sound signals. This layer involves how a bit is transmitted across a medium.
Through a VPN, it is possible to connect to a LAN that is protected from outside access through the internet. So, now it is possible for workers to connect to a company's internal network from almost anywhere on the world. This gave rise to home offices, as many office jobs do not require consultation and hence can be completed from home. For example, a mother workin half time as an accountant can bring her children to school in the morning, can then download necessary papers form the company's network through a VPN and complete her work, and by the time she finishes, she can pick her kids up from school. This has saved a significant amount of time in her daily schedule that would otherwise have been spent on travelling to and from work.
Protocol: a set of rules that communicating parties use when using a communication network.
Data packet: the compartmentalized pieces of information into which a message is broken down in a packet switching network system.
Protocols are the set of rules computers follow when communicaating across a network. Without them, no information can be transmitted as computers don't know how to interpret the signals coming through the network. Similarly, if you don't know a foreign language, you cannot talk with people who only speak that language.
Earlier, data transmission often happened through the slow phone network, so compressing data for faster transmission was essential. Today, the transmission speeds have greatly increased, but we are transmitting far more data over the networks than earlier (movies, social media, news), so compression is needed to be able to transmit the enormous amounts of data without using up all the bandwidth.
Packet switching is a method of transmitting information over a computer network. The information is broken down into smaller pieces and the packets are transmitted across the network.
Every packet contains:
The packets are transported as individual and independent units through the network, so they can travel on many different ways.
Data encryption: information is scrambled using a set of mathematical rules and passwords so that it is only readable by the communicating parties. Examples are AES and RSA.
userID: a userID and password are used to identify the user. Usually, traffic after identification is handled using some type on encryption method.
Content originally created by Matyas Mehn and adapted/updated with permission under the Attribution-Share Alike licence.